(DeCandido's novelizations of the Anderson films)
Mahmoud had surgery to remove an ulcer, but experienced poor treatment. It was ruled that his death was due to a combination of substandard medical equipment and side-effects of the drugs used, which only worsened his condition, all of which were provided by Umbrella subsidiaries. He attempted to sue the company, but was plagued by a "mistake" from the IRS indicating numerous tax failings that didn't exist before. His lawyer then inexplicably advised an out-of-court settlement. He soon after died from complications from the operation.
- DeCandido, Genesis, Chapter Two