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{{DISPLAYTITLE:Zombie}}
 
{{DISPLAYTITLE:Zombie}}
{{Creature tab|biology}}  The Hippocampus suffers from severe necrosis due to infection, meaning that the Zombie's memories and spacial navigation skills have been compromised.<ref>''KAITAISHINSHO'', p.054.</ref><ref group="notes">Transcript from ''biohazard 0 kaitaishinsho'':<br />"t-ウイルスに冒された人間は、 極めて短時間のうちにその肉体に劇的な変化が現れる。皮膚は鬱血して急激な腐敗を開始し、脳細胞は記憶をつかさどる部位がほぼ完全に侵食・破壊されていく。逆に筋組織は代謝機能の増幅により強化され、 常人を超える怪力を発揮するようになる。その結果生み出されるのがこの、 "墓から蘇った腐乱死体" のような犠牲者たちなのである。心肺や脳が停止した状態からも感染者は蘇生するが、これは複雑に干渉して合う人体のデリケートな働きをほとんど省略しても活働できるように、 ウイルスが遺伝子レベルで肉体を作り替えているため。ゆえに、 ゾンビとして活働を再開した時点で厳密には人間とは呼べない、 人肉食の怪物へと変貌している。なお、 今回の事件でゾンビ化した者のほとんどは、 マーカス博士が創り出したヒルによってt-ウイルスを媒介されたと思われる。"</ref> Because of this, a Zombie has lost any sense of reasoning and is driven completely by instincts, most notably is the urge to feed.
 
   
Due to their diet, the body of a Zombie begins to over-produce stomach acids in order to dissolve the meat quicker. This leads to Zombies sometimes vomiting the acid.
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{{Creature tab|biology}}
  +
'''Zombies''' are the typical result of [[t-Virus]] infection on humans. Zombies are distinguished by their cannibalistic urges and active necrosis of the epidermis which make them appear dead. It is for the latter characteristic they share the name with the Zombies of the Afro-Caribbean folklore.
   
A Zombie will pursue its target until it is rendered immobile by decapitation, complete destruction of the brain or complete incineration of the body. Not being able to feel pain, a Zombie can resist several gunshots from a typical small-caliber [[handgun]] before falling down, but can be easily killed with either a well-aimed [[shotgun]] blast to the head or a high-caliber [[magnum]] handgun.
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== Intelligence ==
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Necrosis, particularly of the brain, occurs in such significance that Zombies can and have been mistaken for dead. Brain damage is extreme in the [[Wikipedia:neocortex|neocortex]], which is responsible for higher-order brain functions.<ref name="Inside39">Takeo (ed.), ''Inside of BIO-HAZARD'', p.39.</ref><ref group="excerpt">Excerpt from ''Inside of BIO-HAZARD'', p.039: "事故によってラクーン施設内に流れだしたクレイウィルスε型の変種体は、 残念なことに職員にも感染してしまった。 その結果、 生まれたのがこのゾンビたちである。 ゾンビと聞くと墓場から蘇った地獄の亡者どもという印象を抱くが、 彼らは正確には死んではいない。 クレイウィルスε変種体に侵された人間は、 大脳新皮質が壊死して一種の脳死状態になり、 本能に谷った単純な生存活動のみに行動が限定される。  その結果、 飢餓感につき動かされて食物を求めて歩き回るだけの哀れな存在になってしまうのだ。  また、 成長ホルモンの異常分泌により体が大型化するが、 代謝機能の著しい低下のために外見上は腐乱死体そのものになっている。 変異前の習慣はわずかに残るらしく、 自分に関係のあった場所を中心にうろつき、 ドアの開閉ぐらいの簡単な行動ならこなせるようだ。"</ref> As a result, sensory perception; cognition; motor skills, spatial reasoning, and language are either greatly limited or totally absent. Zombies, lacking human reasoning, rely entirely on basal urges and will wander in search of food.<ref name="Inside39" /> The mind is not entirely gone, however, as Zombies are thought to have a fixation with wandering around buildings they frequented before infection.<ref name="Inside39" /> They can also recognize a door handle and are aware of its functions.<ref name="Inside39" /> The [[Wikipedia:hypothalamus|hypothalamus]] is also affected, and as a result, Zombies are constantly hungry regardless of how much they have eaten. Zombies can and will kill other people to sustain themselves. In situations of lack of nutrition, Zombies will also consume corpses, the unconscious bodies of the infected or will attack and eat other Zombies.
   
Due to the necrosis throughout their bodies and the degradation of the nervous system, Zombies move very slowly and awkwardly, leading to their signature shuffling gait and their easily avoided lunges. However, there are also some Zombies capable of moving faster due to less advanced degradation. In addition, in some cases, the zombies will rush quickly at their prey even if they are under severe degradation.
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== Bodily changes ==
  +
[[File:Resident-evil-1-chris-and-zombie.jpg|thumb|right|Zombies possess enhanced strength and abnormal growth.]]
  +
Body processes in Zombies are noticeably distinct from uninfected humans. Due to radical changes in the metabolism, necrosis of the flesh, particularly of the skin takes place and the bone may be displayed.<ref name="Inside39" /> However, muscle tissue is also strengthened,<ref name="KAITAI54">''KAITAISHINSHO'', p.054.</ref><ref group="excerpt">Transcript from ''biohazard 0 kaitaishinsho'':<br />"t-ウイルスに冒された人間は、 極めて短時間のうちにその肉体に劇的な変化が現れる。皮膚は鬱血して急激な腐敗を開始し、脳細胞は記憶をつかさどる部位がほぼ完全に侵食・破壊されていく。逆に筋組織は代謝機能の増幅により強化され、 常人を超える怪力を発揮するようになる。その結果生み出されるのがこの、 "墓から蘇った腐乱死体" のような犠牲者たちなのである。心肺や脳が停止した状態からも感染者は蘇生するが、これは複雑に干渉して合う人体のデリケートな働きをほとんど省略しても活働できるように、 ウイルスが遺伝子レベルで肉体を作り替えているため。ゆえに、 ゾンビとして活動を再開した時点で厳密には人間とは呼べない、 人肉食の怪物へと変貌している。なお、 今回の事件でゾンビ化した者のほとんどは、 マーカス博士が創り出したヒルによってt-ウイルスを媒介されたと思われる。"</ref> allowing Zombies to overpower people in spite of their poor motor skills. The downside to this improved strength is the requirement of massive quantities of meat to maintain. Due to their diet, the body of a Zombie begins to over-produce stomach acids in order to dissolve the meat quicker.<ref name="Official37">''BIOHAZARD 2 Official Guide Book'', p.37.</ref><ref group="excerpt">''Excerpt from ''BIOHAZARD 2 Official Guide Book'', p.37: "T-ウィルスの影響で生きる屍となった人々。 多くはもとラクーン市民であったが、 いまでは人としての理性は失われ、 彼らをつき動かすのは極度の空腹感がもたらす食欲でしかない。 全身の筋肉はすでに劣化をはじめており、 うっ血した皮膚がところどころそげ落ちて骨を露出させている。 彼らの異常な生命力は、 T-ウィルスの急激な新陳代謝機能によるもので、 これを維持するには膨大なエネルギーが必要とされる。 そのため、 つねに人肉を求めてさまよい、 外部から執拗なまでに食物を摂取するのだ。 この供給が追いつかずにエネルギーを枯渇させたゾンビは身動きがとれなくなり、 結果、 ほかのゾンビの餌食となって息絶えることになる。なお、 攻撃としても使用される強力な胃酸は、 体内にとりこんだ食物を短時間で消化するためのものであると推測される。"''</ref> Vomiting of acid, sometimes containing blood, is a typical side-effect. Should a Zombie's available food supply be exhausted, they will collapse from exhaustion and may die from starvation or be consumed by other Zombies.<ref name="Official37" />
   
A Zombie can continue to pursue prey even after losing limbs or the lower half of its body. Zombies that have lost the use of their legs (either through deterioration or damage) instead crawl after prey until it can grab the target and bite into the leg. They can be stopped by crushing the head or kicking it off entirely. Some Zombies lay dormant on the ground due to their lack of nutrition, but will bite anything that comes to their direction. These Zombies that play dead can be easily spotted, as their heads usually follow prey's movements.
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The body also begins to grow as a result of hormones produced by the hypothalamus;<ref name="Inside39" /> as a result, the Zombies at the Arklay Laboratory were significantly taller than [[S.T.A.R.S.]] officers [[Chris Redfield]] and [[Jill Valentine]] one or two months after zombification.
   
In situations of lack of nutrition due to the unavailability of live prey, Zombies will resort to cannibalism, consuming other Zombies or infected corpses that have yet to reanimate. However, upon noticing live prey, a Zombie will cease cannibalism and turn their attention to the live prey.
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A Zombie's eyes are covered by a white or gray film of mucous either covering the entire eye or just the pupil, as the eye is a sensitive mucous membrane and turns almost entirely into mucous when dead or rotting.{{Verify}}
   
A Zombie's eyes are covered by a white or gray film of mucous either covering the entire eye or just the pupil, as the eye is a sensitive mucous membrane and turns almost entirely into mucous when dead or rotting.
+
At a genetic level, Zombies mutate to work around conditions that should be fatal to humans. Even with a shut down of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, or the aforementioned apparent brain death, infected people can still be revived as Zombies.<ref name="KAITAI54" /> Due to this mutation, Zombies can endure considerable punishment and are not felled by singular gunshot wounds as humans can. As a consequence, a Zombie's death can only be assured through decapitation, the destruction of the brain itself or complete incineration.
   
The Zombies encountered in the Spencer Estate and in Africa appear to be much weaker and not as phsyically active as previous infectees. They lie on their backs, sometimes moaning or moving slowly. But once a potential victim approaches, they spring up with a grab attack, which can be avoided. Zombies die from any attack, be it from a weapon or melee attack and cannot chase after prey.
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==Further mutation==
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If infected with certain strains of the t-Virus, Zombies can go through further mutations in a process known as "V-ACT". The first example of V-ACT was recorded at the Arklay Laboratory when a Zombie transformed into a [[Crimson Head]]. The protein strains which brought on this mutation were further altered by other laboratories; the t-Virus that was leaked into Raccoon City's water supply turned zombies into [[Licker]]s.
Zombies can make noises such as grunting and moaning instead of actual speech due to the degradation of their brains.
 
 
==Variation of infection==
 
Since virtually anyone can become a Zombie, they can come in different varieties depending on the location where an outbreak occurs, and the variation of the virus itself. This ranges from ordinary civilians and police officers to the very workers and researchers that were experimenting on the virus. Some Zombies were even created within Umbrella's facilities as a result of experiments. Known individuals that have turned into Zombies include [[Edward Dewey]], [[Forest Speyer]], [[Marvin Branagh]] and [[Brad Vickers]], among ''many'' others.
 
 
Capabilities of a zombie vary as factors are dependent on the carrier. If infected with a certain mutant strain of the t-virus, an incapacitated Zombie can mutate into a "[[Crimson Head]]" due to a process called V-ACT. Secondary infection with the perfected and mass-produced variant creates the [[Licker]] through the same process. Some freak mutations have also been observed, such as the [[Suspended]].
 
   
 
==Bibliography==
 
==Bibliography==
*{{Cite book
+
*{{Cite book|title=[[Inside of BIO-HAZARD]]|publisher= [[Famitsu]]|author=|authors=|editor=Takeo, Sakamoto |page=|pages= |language=Japanese |isbn=4-89366-659-2|year=1997}}
|year = 2003
+
*{{cite book|title=[[BIOHAZARD 2 Official Guide Book]]|editor=Tahara, Seiji (田原 誠司)|publisher=Famitsu |location=Japan|year=1998}}
|title = [[biohazard 0 KAITAISHINSHO]]
+
*{{Cite book|year = 2003|title = [[biohazard 0 KAITAISHINSHO]]|publisher = Famitsu|editor = Hamamura, Koichi |language = Japanese|isbn = 4-7577-1298-7}}
|publisher = Famitsu
 
|editor = Hamamura, Koichi
 
|language = Japanese
 
|isbn = 4-7577-1298-7}}
 
   
 
==Sources==
 
==Sources==
;notes
+
;excerpts
<references group="notes" />
+
  +
<references group="excerpt" />
   
 
;references
 
;references
  +
 
<references />
 
<references />
   

Revision as of 00:02, February 5, 2020


History
Biology
Gameplay
Appearances
Gallery
Further notes

Zombies are the typical result of t-Virus infection on humans. Zombies are distinguished by their cannibalistic urges and active necrosis of the epidermis which make them appear dead. It is for the latter characteristic they share the name with the Zombies of the Afro-Caribbean folklore.

Intelligence

Necrosis, particularly of the brain, occurs in such significance that Zombies can and have been mistaken for dead. Brain damage is extreme in the neocortex, which is responsible for higher-order brain functions.[1][excerpt 1] As a result, sensory perception; cognition; motor skills, spatial reasoning, and language are either greatly limited or totally absent. Zombies, lacking human reasoning, rely entirely on basal urges and will wander in search of food.[1] The mind is not entirely gone, however, as Zombies are thought to have a fixation with wandering around buildings they frequented before infection.[1] They can also recognize a door handle and are aware of its functions.[1] The hypothalamus is also affected, and as a result, Zombies are constantly hungry regardless of how much they have eaten. Zombies can and will kill other people to sustain themselves. In situations of lack of nutrition, Zombies will also consume corpses, the unconscious bodies of the infected or will attack and eat other Zombies.

Bodily changes

Resident-evil-1-chris-and-zombie

Zombies possess enhanced strength and abnormal growth.

Body processes in Zombies are noticeably distinct from uninfected humans. Due to radical changes in the metabolism, necrosis of the flesh, particularly of the skin takes place and the bone may be displayed.[1] However, muscle tissue is also strengthened,[2][excerpt 2] allowing Zombies to overpower people in spite of their poor motor skills. The downside to this improved strength is the requirement of massive quantities of meat to maintain. Due to their diet, the body of a Zombie begins to over-produce stomach acids in order to dissolve the meat quicker.[3][excerpt 3] Vomiting of acid, sometimes containing blood, is a typical side-effect. Should a Zombie's available food supply be exhausted, they will collapse from exhaustion and may die from starvation or be consumed by other Zombies.[3]

The body also begins to grow as a result of hormones produced by the hypothalamus;[1] as a result, the Zombies at the Arklay Laboratory were significantly taller than S.T.A.R.S. officers Chris Redfield and Jill Valentine one or two months after zombification.

A Zombie's eyes are covered by a white or gray film of mucous either covering the entire eye or just the pupil, as the eye is a sensitive mucous membrane and turns almost entirely into mucous when dead or rotting.[citation needed]

At a genetic level, Zombies mutate to work around conditions that should be fatal to humans. Even with a shut down of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, or the aforementioned apparent brain death, infected people can still be revived as Zombies.[2] Due to this mutation, Zombies can endure considerable punishment and are not felled by singular gunshot wounds as humans can. As a consequence, a Zombie's death can only be assured through decapitation, the destruction of the brain itself or complete incineration.

Further mutation

If infected with certain strains of the t-Virus, Zombies can go through further mutations in a process known as "V-ACT". The first example of V-ACT was recorded at the Arklay Laboratory when a Zombie transformed into a Crimson Head. The protein strains which brought on this mutation were further altered by other laboratories; the t-Virus that was leaked into Raccoon City's water supply turned zombies into Lickers.

Bibliography

Sources

excerpts
  1. Excerpt from Inside of BIO-HAZARD, p.039: "事故によってラクーン施設内に流れだしたクレイウィルスε型の変種体は、 残念なことに職員にも感染してしまった。 その結果、 生まれたのがこのゾンビたちである。 ゾンビと聞くと墓場から蘇った地獄の亡者どもという印象を抱くが、 彼らは正確には死んではいない。 クレイウィルスε変種体に侵された人間は、 大脳新皮質が壊死して一種の脳死状態になり、 本能に谷った単純な生存活動のみに行動が限定される。  その結果、 飢餓感につき動かされて食物を求めて歩き回るだけの哀れな存在になってしまうのだ。  また、 成長ホルモンの異常分泌により体が大型化するが、 代謝機能の著しい低下のために外見上は腐乱死体そのものになっている。 変異前の習慣はわずかに残るらしく、 自分に関係のあった場所を中心にうろつき、 ドアの開閉ぐらいの簡単な行動ならこなせるようだ。"
  2. Transcript from biohazard 0 kaitaishinsho:
    "t-ウイルスに冒された人間は、 極めて短時間のうちにその肉体に劇的な変化が現れる。皮膚は鬱血して急激な腐敗を開始し、脳細胞は記憶をつかさどる部位がほぼ完全に侵食・破壊されていく。逆に筋組織は代謝機能の増幅により強化され、 常人を超える怪力を発揮するようになる。その結果生み出されるのがこの、 "墓から蘇った腐乱死体" のような犠牲者たちなのである。心肺や脳が停止した状態からも感染者は蘇生するが、これは複雑に干渉して合う人体のデリケートな働きをほとんど省略しても活働できるように、 ウイルスが遺伝子レベルで肉体を作り替えているため。ゆえに、 ゾンビとして活動を再開した時点で厳密には人間とは呼べない、 人肉食の怪物へと変貌している。なお、 今回の事件でゾンビ化した者のほとんどは、 マーカス博士が創り出したヒルによってt-ウイルスを媒介されたと思われる。"
  3. Excerpt from BIOHAZARD 2 Official Guide Book, p.37: "T-ウィルスの影響で生きる屍となった人々。 多くはもとラクーン市民であったが、 いまでは人としての理性は失われ、 彼らをつき動かすのは極度の空腹感がもたらす食欲でしかない。 全身の筋肉はすでに劣化をはじめており、 うっ血した皮膚がところどころそげ落ちて骨を露出させている。 彼らの異常な生命力は、 T-ウィルスの急激な新陳代謝機能によるもので、 これを維持するには膨大なエネルギーが必要とされる。 そのため、 つねに人肉を求めてさまよい、 外部から執拗なまでに食物を摂取するのだ。 この供給が追いつかずにエネルギーを枯渇させたゾンビは身動きがとれなくなり、 結果、 ほかのゾンビの餌食となって息絶えることになる。なお、 攻撃としても使用される強力な胃酸は、 体内にとりこんだ食物を短時間で消化するためのものであると推測される。"
references
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Takeo (ed.), Inside of BIO-HAZARD, p.39.
  2. 2.0 2.1 KAITAISHINSHO, p.054.
  3. 3.0 3.1 BIOHAZARD 2 Official Guide Book, p.37.
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